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Alternative Titles: Assouan, Assuan, Syene
Aswān, also spelled Assuan or Assouan, Greek Syene, city, capital of Aswān muḥāfaẓah (governorate), Egypt, on the east bank of the Nile River just below the First Cataract. It faces the island of Elephantine (modern Jazīrat Aswān), on which stand the ruins of the ancient city of Yeb. Aswān was the southern frontier of pharaonic Egypt. Its local quarries supplied granite for many ancient Egyptian monuments and are still operated. On the Nile’s eastern bank was the site of the ancient city of Swen (ancient Egyptian: “the Mart”), whence came the Greek Syene and the Arabic Aswān. Aswān later served as a frontier garrison post for the Romans, the Turks, and the British.
Modern Aswān is an administrative centre, winter resort, and commercial centre, receiving trade from Sudan. It is also an industrial centre, with a copper- and steel-producing complex, a chemicals plant producing fertilizer, a cement plant, a sugar refinery, and quarries producing granite and marble. The old Aswān Dam (completed in 1902) rises about 3 miles (5 km) south of the city; the Aswan High Dam (completed in 1970) is about 7 miles (11 km) south of the city. The Higher Industrial Institute is located in Aswān. A school for fisheries training opened in 1980. On Elephantine a museum contains antiquities from the governorate. There are many hotels in the city, which is the southern terminus of the Cairo-Aswān railway. There is also an international airport. Pop. (2006) 266,013.
Islamic arts: Architecture
…have survived in Cairo and Aswān. Only a few, such as the mashhad at Aswān, are somewhat more…
Nile River: Climate and hydrology
…effect is not felt at Aswān, Egypt, until July. The water then starts to rise and continues to do so…
Nile River: Navigation
…steamers as far south as Aswān; thousands of small boats ply the Nile and delta waterways.…
Alternative Titles: Assouan, Assuan
Aswān, also spelled Assuan or Assouan, muḥāfaẓah (governorate), Upper Egypt, embracing the Nile River floodplain and immediately adjacent territories. Long and narrow in shape, it is the most southerly Egyptian governorate along the Nile; its short southern boundary forms part of the international frontier with Sudan. The sandstone, granite, and diorite hills flanking the Nile are dissected by ancient, long-dried-up streams. At the capital of Aswān and at Wadi Ḥalfā, at the Sudanese frontier, the Nile flows through granite formations that, having eroded more slowly, have produced rapids and islands in the river, called cataracts. These presented obstacles to river traffic and were a factor in the location of the frontier at Aswān in pharaonic Egypt.
AswānAswān, Egypt, on the Nile River.Nilemaster
Just above the city of Aswān is the old Aswān Dam. Some 4 miles (6 km) farther south is the Aswan High Dam, one of the world’s great engineering works, completed in 1970. South of the High Dam for nearly 150 miles (240 km) to the Sudanese border is a hilly, inhospitable desert wilderness without roads or railroads, with the original river valley flooded by Lake Nasser.
Since 1968, when the High Dam became operational, many formerly summer-irrigated lands have been converted to year-round irrigation in Aswān governorate. Sugarcane, lentils, corn (maize), and wheat are grown in the area north of Aswān city. Industry in the governorate is centred on the High Dam and in the towns of Kawm Umbū and Idfū, both of which have sugar refineries. Granite has long been quarried around Aswān city, and marble quarries opened in modern times. Tourism also is important, as the governorate is rich in well-preserved ancient monuments. In the 1960s a massive international scientific effort removed the Egyptian temples threatened by the rising waters of Lake Nasser to higher ground; the most complex efforts involved Abu Simbel and Philae. Area 262 square miles (679 square km). Pop. (2006) 1,184,432.
Aswān, Egypt: Abu SimbelAbu Simbel archaeological site, containing two temples built by the Egyptian king Ramses II (reigned 1279–13 BCE), now located in Aswān muḥāfaẓah (governorate), southern Egypt. On the left is the main temple, dedicated to the sun gods Amon-Re and Re-Horakhte, and on the right is the smaller temple dedicated to Nefertari for the worship of the goddess Hathor.Dennis Jarvis (CC-BY-2.0) (A Britannica Publishing Partner)
…the Aswan High Dam, in Aswān muḥāfaẓah (governorate), southern Egypt. Its ancient Egyptian name…
Egypt, country located in the northeastern corner of Africa. Egypt’s heartland, the Nile…
Aswan High Dam
Aswan High Dam, rockfill dam across the Nile River, at Aswān, Egypt, completed in 1970…